Welcome to the Quantum World

QUANTUM

                                                 NAPPING

QUANTUM

 NAPPING

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nap pods technology

Imagine a product that increases alertness, boosts creativity, reduces stress, improves perception, stamina, motor skills, and accuracy, enhances your sex life, helps you make better decisions, keeps you looking younger, aids in weight loss, reduces the risk of heart attack, elevates your mood, and strengthens memory. Now imagine that this product is nontoxic, has no dangerous side effects, and, best of all, is absolutely free. This miracle drug is, in fact, nothing more than the nap: the right nap at the right time. 

The work of Sara C. Mednick, Ph.D., a researcher at the Salk Institute and the leading authority on the study of the nap, Take a Nap! Change Your Life. is the scientifically-based breakthrough program that shows how we can fight the fatigue epidemic—which afflicts an estimated 50 million Americans—through a custom-designed nap. Take a Nap! Change Your Life. explains the five stages of the sleep cycle, particularly Stage Two, Slow Wave Sleep, and REM, and the benefits each one provides; how to assess your tiredness and set up a personal sleep profile; and how to neutralize the voice in your head that tells you napping is a sign of laziness. (Not that anyone would have called JFK, Churchill, Einstein, or Napoleon a slug-a-bed.) Using the unique Nap Wheel on the cover and interior graphs and charts, it shows us exactly when our optimum napping time is, and exactly how long we should try to sleep—even how it’s possible to design a nap to inspire creativity one day, and the next day design one to help us with our memory. There are tips on how to create the right nap environment, a 16-step technique for falling asleep, a six-week napping workbook, and more.

Welcome to the Quantum World

Play Video

nap pods technology

Imagine a product that increases alertness, boosts creativity, reduces stress, improves perception, stamina, motor skills, and accuracy, enhances your sex life, helps you make better decisions, keeps you looking younger, aids in weight loss, reduces the risk of heart attack, elevates your mood, and strengthens memory. Now imagine that this product is nontoxic, has no dangerous side effects, and, best of all, is absolutely free. This miracle drug is, in fact, nothing more than the nap: the right nap at the right time. 

The work of Sara C. Mednick, Ph.D., a researcher at the Salk Institute and the leading authority on the study of the nap, Take a Nap! Change Your Life. is the scientifically-based breakthrough program that shows how we can fight the fatigue epidemic—which afflicts an estimated 50 million Americans—through a custom-designed nap. Take a Nap! Change Your Life. explains the five stages of the sleep cycle, particularly Stage Two, Slow Wave Sleep, and REM, and the benefits each one provides; how to assess your tiredness and set up a personal sleep profile; and how to neutralize the voice in your head that tells you napping is a sign of laziness. (Not that anyone would have called JFK, Churchill, Einstein, or Napoleon a slug-a-bed.) Using the unique Nap Wheel on the cover and interior graphs and charts, it shows us exactly when our optimum napping time is, and exactly how long we should try to sleep—even how it’s possible to design a nap to inspire creativity one day, and the next day design one to help us with our memory. There are tips on how to create the right nap environment, a 16-step technique for falling asleep, a six-week napping workbook, and more.

THE BEST POWER NAPPING SYSTEM

Quantum Napping  system is the perfect supporter for short, regenerative deep sleep phases.

METHODOLOGY IN NAPPING AND HEALTH TREATMENTS

1DT – HOME EDITION is a innovative and highly effective system designed for usage in the wellness at home, work, hotel,  fitness and centers for aesthetics and aesthetic medicine. This device combines artificial intelligence with traditional Chinese medicine which gives amazing and long-term results.

The Energy and Meditation Machine!

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Stress and stress related illnesses are at epidemic proportions globally. However, our reaction to stressors can actually be one of relaxation. It’s all a matter of learning how to generate a healthy response in the face of stress and to learn how to routinely exist in this state. And everyone can learn.
When we experience fear-based emotions associated with stress we tend to shut down or act out in order to reduce our feelings of fear. Doing so disconnects us from our feelings, literally taking us away from our body. The key to feeling relaxed in the face of stress is to learn what it feels like to be fully present and relaxed. 4L.B.D (4 life Bio Design) technology induces a relaxed and present state of being that you can easily feel. The more you feel relaxed, the easier it gets to recreate these feelings. With greater use these relaxed feelings intensify making you more resistant to feeling the effects of stress and making it easier to recreate feelings of relaxation and presence even when you allow stress to get the better of you.
Using music, the technology produces pleasant sound and vibrations, which induces a very deep state of relaxed drowsiness. The synchronized magnetic field induces a much greater state of presence, as a result of its interaction with the human energy system. During your session, you are instructed to fall asleep, which promotes the development of drowsiness, but the intermittent changes in the intensity of the sound and vibration from the music typically keeps you from falling into a deep sleep. As a result of the changing intensity and greater presence you become profoundly relaxed, but over time you remain aware. You learn to appreciate how relaxed and present you can feel, which then allows you to recreate these feelings anytime and with further practice you learn to intensify them.
Stress Reduction:
According to recent American Psychological Association surveys, approximately 75% of Americans feel that their levels of stress are unhealthy. According the AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians, approximately 66% of doctor’s office visits are stress related. Clearly stress is at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and it doesn’t appear to be lessening.
Stressors in our environment, whether they result from illness, financial issues, and relationship problems or simply due to a traffic jam, first impact the human nervous system and then the body. The stress response prepares our body for fight or flight and in our society, with its numerous stressors, often causes us to experience stress on a chronic basis. The antidote is the Relaxation Response (RR). 4L.B.D technology can produce a very potent RR.
The technology consists of amplified layered music played through transducers that generate synchronized sound and vibration as well as a strategically placed dynamic magnetic field affecting the central nervous system and the human energy system, respectively.
Since the days of our early ancestors we have been endowed with a nervous system that has a built-in, hard-wired survival mechanism. With this mechanism we are always scanning our environment, consciously and subconsciously, for potential danger. The survival mechanism is supported primarily by 3 of our senses, sight, hearing, and touch. While you’re in a Energy and Sound session there is no need to worry about your survival because you are safe so it’s okay to turn this mechanism off or nearly so. We accomplish this by systematically turning off or habituating your senses of sight, hearing and touch. Reducing these sensory inputs to your survival mechanism deactivates or markedly reduces it, producing a brain state of inattention, so that you can relax. More info….

TREATMENT WITHOUT THERAPIST

“In a unique Quantumnapping-zone people experience our specially composed sounds, lights, colours, scents, warmth and deep vibrations. The easiest way to activate your self-healing abilities.” Quantum Napping  system can be combined with other treatments, but also act completely independently. For the pure Quantum Napping experience no therapist is necessary.

Nap Pods in the Office: a Workplace Trend

Napping on the job…what was once grounds for getting fired is now being actively encouraged in some offices, many of them techie! In fact, companies such as Google and Zappos are installing napping pods so employees can rest and rejuvenate during the workday. One thought behind this growing trend is that naps actually increase productivity rather than limit it. In many cases, EnergyPods from MetroNaps are the sleeping spaces of choice. And after you check out the range of nap pods in today’s roundup, you just might be inspired to build some nap time into your work schedule! 

QUANTUM

NAPPING & RECHARGE ZONE

QUANTUM

NAPPING & RECHARG ZONE

NAPPING SYSTEM

A nap increases alertness by 30 percent, Lindholst reports, enhances memory and learning, and, according to a Harvard study, decreases the risk of a cardio-vascular disease in middle-aged men by 37 percent if they take three naps a week. Not only that, researchers at Harvard Medical School estimate that poor productivity due to fatigue from lack of sleep costs American businesses $63 billion a year–productivity that could often be at least partly regained with a brief nap. And, napping can increase productivity. In fact, brain researcher Josh Davisreports that a ten-minute nap is all that’s needed to boost brain activity.

Research

 

1. Increase Alertness

Short rest can improve cognitive functioning and alertness, resulting in a 30% decline in attention failures from baseline measure.

Amin, M. M., et al. (2012). The effects of a mid-day nap on the neurocognitive performance of first-year medical residents: a controlled interventional pilot study. Academic Medicine, 87(10), 1428-1433.

Read abstract at pubmed.gov


2. Reduce The Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease

Systematic midday napping (at least 3 times per week) is associated with a 37% lower risk of coronary heart disease.

Naska, A., et al. (2007). Siesta in healthy adults and coronary mortality in the general population. Archives of internal medicine, 167(3), 296-301

Read abstract at pubmed.gov


3. Boost Productivity

Lack of sleep causes workers to perform at subpar levels. Harvard researchers estimate that sleep deprivation costs US companies $63 billion in lost productivity per year.

Kessler, R. C., et al. (2011). Insomnia and the performance of US workers: results from the America insomnia survey. Sleep, 34(9), 1161.

Read abstract at pubmed.gov


4. Enhance Learning

Even an ultra short period of sleep is sufficient to enhance memory processing.

Lahl, O., et al. (2008). An ultra short episode of sleep is sufficient to promote declarative memory performance. Journal of sleep research, 17(1), 3-10.

Read abstract at pubmed.gov


5. Reduce Stress

Daytime napping stops or even reverses the process of deterioration in visual perception, thus helping individuals cope with information overload.

Mednick, S. C., et al. (2002). The restorative effect of naps on perceptual deterioration. Nature neuroscience, 5(7), 677-681.

Read abstract at pubmed.gov


6. Improve Mood

Naps improve performance level and self-confidence of task performance.

Hayashi, M., et al. (1999). The effects of a 20 min nap in the mid-afternoon on mood, performance and EEG activity. Clinical Neurophysiology, 110(2), 272-279.

Read abstract at pubmed.gov

SOUND-MASSAGE-SYSTEM

Low-frequency “alpha waves” characterize our half-sleep or the state during an easy meditation. “Theta waves” are found in the sleep and dream phase as well as in deep meditation. When our brain waves vibrate in the alpha and theta modes, we are in a state of deep relaxation. “Delta waves”, on the other hand, determine deep sleep. During this phase, our self-healing efforts become active.

The beneficial effect of the slow, evenly vibrating brain waves is used by the Quantum Zone – Systems very specifically. The basic technique is the “F.R. Audiotherapy”: A special music with binaural sounds produces gentle sound waves in the course of a quiet heartbeat. They stimulate the brain and put it in the alpha to delta mode. In this way body, mind and soul find a soothing, regenerating rest and deep relaxation.

More than just “relaxation”

When the brain waves vibrate in the alpha-to-delta mode, the deep rest produced by this effect not only affects the soul, but the whole organism. As a “switching center” our brain regulates the vegetative nervous system and influences the organ functions of our body.

The positive effects:
• Heart rate and pulse rate slow down, blood pressure drops.
• The breathing becomes deeper and calmer.
• The muscle tension decreases.
• The vessels expand and the blood flow increases.
• The production of stress hormones decreases.
• The immune system is activated

Scientists are convinced!

Clinical studies from the US demonstrate the efficacy of audio therapy, which is the basis for the Quantum Zone system. The scientists also found that the special sound frequencies are suitable for a wide range of applications:
• Already with a single session, everyday and professional stress can be reduced.
• Sleep quality and quality are improved by up to 80% within 14 days.
• Fears and depressive symptoms as well as psychological effects of trauma are reduced by 40 to 60 percent.
• The psychological consequences of persistent pain are diminishing.

The perfect combination

When the sounds of the Quantum Zone set the brain into the relaxation mode, the fine vibrations of the integrated massage system harmonize with the energy centers (chakras) of the body.
The Quantum Zone allows mental and physical relaxation and regeneration within a very short time. As a perfect overall system, it offers the ultimate path to:
• Recovery
• Refreshment
• Vitality

Sounds & vibrations perfectly combined

A 30-minute or 60-minute sound-massage application lets your customers experience the extraordinary, harmonious relaxation.

Four programs are available

Quantum Touch (Light vibrations): 30-minute program with light vibrations designed to enhance the massage experience. With gentle, relaxing music, tones and natural sounds.

Quantum Gentle (Full body vibrations): 60-Minute program. Full Body mixture of lighter and deeper vibrations designed for both relaxation and Chakra Balancing. Multi-channel frequencies designed to resonate with the body’s energy centers and to enhance the massage experience. With accompanying audio journey to a deep, relaxed state.

Quantum Deep (Deep vibrations): 60-Minute program with deeper multi-channel vibrations for a more intense physical experience with an orchestrated deep relaxation audio program of musical notes, tones and natural sounds.

Quantum Energy (Energy balance program): 30-Minute vibration program designed to quickly balance the body’s energy centers, while music, tones and natural sounds help deliver a relaxed mental state.

TBR energy system

TheTBR System System was developed to help people to break down everyday stress, to achieve perfect regeneration every day and – very importantly – to support the body in clearing energy blockages. Eight recognised forms of therapy, ranging from music and relaxation therapy to notes, tonal and vibration therapy,  magnetic resonance therapy, and on to micro massage  have been combined in a single wellness system. The action of each individual component can be proved scientifically using recognised diagnostics systems.

The ultimate goal of the treatment is to achieve and maintain the energetic balance, for which HSDC-complex at first gathers the accurate data on the status and energetic deficits, after which it transfers the exact amount of energy which is needed by the analyzed tissue.

Hardware and software diagnostic complex (HSDC-complex) analyzes the body and gives the diagnosis of the physical (funkctional and energy) condition and its needs prior to the treatment itself. During the treatment, using bio-resonce principles, self-correcting body mechanisms are being stimulated, which result in superb therapeutic effects. The device uses sensors attached to the computer, and intuitive software guides the therapist through each part of the treatment step by step.

And the entire treatment is completely non-invasive and painless, very soothing and pleasing to the client.

Electrical impulses of very low frequency via probes of treatment pass into the body. This device does not perform muscle stimulation.

Treatment probes in the body first gather information on the state and the cellular structure of the client and deliver this information in the form of impulses to the computer in device. The computer compares the received impulses from the body of a client with a huge database, transforms and regulates them and delivers them back into the body. It is a closed loop of measurement and treatment  that is constantly being updated and which modulates the energy delivered back to the client.

The unique Hardware and software diagnostic control of the F.R.T sistems measures skin resistance, internal and external cell resistance, tissue depth, the thickness of the cell wall and polarity (electrical charge) of the cells.

The HSDC-complex uses the results of these measurements in order to adjust the voltage, frequency and intensity of the therapy. The Quantum Zone gives body exactly what it needs to re-achieve the balance when there is an excess of positive ions and stimulates collagen production and cell regeneration. The device stimulates the mitochondria which extract energy from glucose to produce ATP – a chemical that is used in the synthesis of proteins (for cell repair) and for energy storage. Simply put – the F.R.T module stimulates the body to start producing more energy for cell regeneration and collagen production, and to carry out metabolic processes.

The effects on the body during treatment:

 

Ion grid rebalance:

The body consists of billions of electrically charged subatomic particles, ions, which are used in electrical reactions that occur in the body. When these ions are wrongly charged, electrical reactions are losing effectiveness and, besides other effects, can harm the aesthetics of the body.

Improving blood circulation:

Blood carries essential nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. Improving blood circulation allows the transfer of a number of essential nutrients to the places where they are needed and bring oxygen to the mitochondria in order to improve energy production.

Acceleration of metabolism:

An accelerated metabolism uses more calories for energy production and burns more fat.

Stimulation of the lymphatic system

The lymphatic system carries water and toxins and it is closely associated with cardiovascular system. On over time it even more slows down and blocks. If we stimulate the lymphatic system we move the blockades and accelerate elimination of toxins from our body.

Dehydration and decomposition of fat:

Excess water that is trapped in the fat cells makes them appear larger than they actually are. The F.R.T removes water from the fat cells and breaks down fatty buildup in the fatty acids that the body can then use for energy.

From a scientific viewpoint, the electrical potential of the cell is a direct indicator of the overall health of the body. When the electrical potential is low, your cells lose their vitality and ability to function properly, which can lead to fatigue, lack of vitality, and decreased immunity. When you look at the live cell blood sample of an unhealthy person under a microscope; the cells appear clumped together and somewhat lifeless – a classic picture of low electrical potential.

A practitioner, who wanted to know if there was a difference in the effect between F.R.T and Mechanical Whole BodYVibration on unhealthy blood cells, did a blood cell study. After just 10 minutes of F.R.T Vibration, the cells were re-energized, and regained enough cell voltage to separate from the other blood cells, and return to a more functional state, with a greater degree of separation from other cells. Blood samples taken before and after Mechanical Whole Body Vibration, showed no change whatsoever.

The energy level or health of a cell can actually be measured in millivolts. According to Nobel Prize winner Otto Warburg, healthy cells have cell voltages of 70 to 80 millivolts with an overall negative charge. Due to the constant stresses of modern life, a toxic diet and environment, cell voltage tends to drop, becoming even more depleted as we age or get sick.

It is notable that just 7 minutes of F.R.T Vibration had a positive effect on the unhealthy blood cells. It is also important to know that consistent use of this technology for an extended period of time is necessary to return cells to a continuous, fully healthy state, with a cell voltage that remains high enough to initiate a natural healing response within the body.

And again, simply mechanically vibrating the cells is not the same as increasing cellular voltage. With F.R.T Vibration, the cells vibrate in response to the frequency stimulation, which increases the electrical potential or voltage of the cell.

Focus on Prevention

There are so many chronic disorders, aches and pains, that are currently only managed with a life-time of discomfort, or prescriptions that rob us of our quality of life and subject us to surviving numerous negative side effects. Why not explore another direction of preventative health, wellness and fitness? Our aim is to release the energy blockages, and help correct imbalances at their source, by helping to create a strong healthy body and immune system, so that the body can heal itself. To accomplish this, we must exercise, move lymphatic fluids, and increase circulation and energy in the cells so that they can function more effectively.

Stagnant Fluid Movement

Another major cause of overall vitality loss is stagnation of lymphatic and other body fluids. Unlike changing the oil in our cars, we cannot remove dirty, stagnant fluids in our body and replace them. Rather than replacing our fluids, we must stimulate circulation to facilitate detoxification and enhance the flow of energy throughout our bodies. As blood and lymph circulate through our bodies, they remove toxins and other waste products. Exercise and good circulation help increase the flow of our vital fluids and assist in the removal of these harmful elements.

It is said that the lymphatic system is the most neglected system of the body. Even orthodox medicine is looking to this system as being the leading cause of many disorders in the body. Lymphatic message has become a popular modality for addressing the congestion and release of toxins. F.R.T treatment is the most effective tool I have ever seen for the movement and release of congested, stagnant lymphatic fluids.

An Overview of the Circulation of Fluids

Consider the circulatory system. The heart is the pump, which pushes the blood through our arteries, supplying our cells with oxygen and nutrients. Once the blood has delivered the oxygen and nutrients throughout the body, it then removes the undesirable carbon dioxide and waste products via the lungs. Moving that deoxygenated venous blood back to the heart is both critical and challenging, because it partially relies on muscle action and one-way valves to get the blood back. This is the basis for the recommendations of vascular/cardio exercise routines promoted by the MDs.

An even greater challenge is to circulate the lymphatic fluids. Lymphatic vessels parallel veins and arteries throughout your body and are also essential for removing toxins from your blood stream. But unlike the circulatory system, the lymphatic system does not have a pump and relies entirely on one-way valves and muscle contractions to move fluid. This is where F.R.T treatment  assists in moving these stagnant fluids out of the body. Like active exercise, F.R.T will stimulate the cells; energize muscles, and effectively move blood and lymphatic fluid, so your body can function more efficiently. If any of these fluids stagnate, or don’t flow freely, the toxins and wastes will accumulate in our bodies. This may lead to fatigue, aches and pain, lose of vital energy, etc.

By stimulating the cells and systems that remove toxins from your body, exercising muscles, stimulating organ tissue, releasing stubborn fat, increasing cellular vitality, strengthening bones, and raising energy levels, Vibragenix will put you on the path to creating a Fit, healthier, energized, better feeling, YOU!

 

Welcome to the Quantum zone concept

THE FUTURE OF MEDICAL WELLNESS

Quantum Zone – medical diagnostic and therapy modular system is a innovative and highly effective system designed for usage in the healthy and healing wellness, fitness and anti aging centers. 

Objective measurement method to ascertain energy status – TBR System

Scientific

Objective measurement method to ascertain energy status – TBR System

The science of acupuncture from Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on energy flows within the meridians. It is both scientifically known and recognised that the individual is made up of functional circuits that communicate with one another. There are 72 meridians, including 12 principal meridians, located on the left and right sides of the body and forming the energy channels of the body.

If no problems are present, energy flows unimpeded through these meridians and thus supplies energy to all the functional circuits of the body; the individual is healthy. If the flow stagnates in one of the energy pathways then symptoms will develop in the long term.

Over the centuries, the Chinese have used subjective methods, such as eye-reading diagnosis or feeling the pulse, to determine the status of the organs, functional circuits and meridians.

In our western cultures, we prefer to use objective measuring methods for diagnosis.

The TBR System meridian and energy status measuring system is a bridge between the intuitive “feeling” of energy and our rational, anatomical philosophy.

Measuring the meridians can be used to create a picture of the energy status of the body painlessly. The TBR  System measures skin resistance at the starting and endpoints of the classical meridians. A computer program is used to calculate the energy status of the body and to illustrate blockages and weak points in diagram form.

By taking a measurement both before and after use, the effect – the way in which TBR System causes vital energy to flow once more – can be demonstrated graphically. This allows the change in your energy status can be ascertained very accurately and your individual requirements can thus be targeted very specifically.

TBR System is a unique combination of Chinese knowledge going back 5,000 years and up-to-the-minute computer technology. A measurement can therefore determine the energy status of your body, and any energy imbalances and interference fields can be detected, together with blockages that may be caused by scar tissue, stress or mental problems. The results of the measurement allow a program to be devised that is adjusted to the individual user and also allow the efficacy to be observed.

The measurement method is non-invasive; the procedure is totally painless and lasts only about 20 minutes.

Meridian diagnostics and energy status measurement – space technology

Sunjke 1In 1993 and 1994, Prof. Dr. med. Valery Polyakov orbited the earth non-stop for a total of 438 days in the MIR space station. A meridian diagnosis system was used on this flight to monitor the cosmonaut crews and for his own self-diagnosis and treatment. This preventive measure alone prevented him developing any symptoms of illness. In contrast to previous space flights (the American record at the time was 20 days non-stop in space) Prof. Polyakov returned to Earth fit and with no health problems.

Energy status, energy distribution and any blockages in the body can be visualised using theTBR System meridian diagnostics system and the change after just a single TBR System session can be shown.

TBR System – energy status measurement

TBR System is a computer analysis system for health. In the event of symptoms, the system determines which meridians are disturbed, what has caused this disturbance and what needs to be done to remedy it. It is a unique combination of 5,000-year-old Chinese knowledge based on the energy flows in the meridians with western rational logic and the measuring techniques of modern computer technology and microchips.

This means that your energy status can be ascertained very accurately and therapy can consequently be directed specifically to your needs. In this way, for example, you will discover the best setting and optimum action of the TBR  System.

Technical background of an TBR System Measurement

The energy status of the meridians is determined at the start and end points of the meridians. The measurements are delegable and reproducible. The measuring process is controlled by four microchips. 400 measurements are carried out for each measuring point within a few milliseconds. The computer interprets and processes the measured data, which are then displayed in graph form on the screen. The measurements are pressure-free and taken with an extremely low current within a very short period. The energy output at the acupuncture point measured is a constant 455 billionth of a Joule.

Measurement inaccuracies are filtered out and the computer calculates the meridian value. With a resistance measuring range from 20 kOhm to 60,000 kOhm, it is possible to measure even extremely sick patients. The measurement duration depends on the level of resistance. With a resistance of 1,000 kOhm it is 12 milliseconds, at 20,000 kOhm it is 150 milliseconds. The electrical load on the skin is 455 billionth of a Joule. This means that the cells are not damaged during the measurement as occurs with other procedures. The system has a measurement error of 0.25% (absolute reproducibility according to Prof. F. Popp. Erfahrungsheilkunde, January 2002).

Unlike most other systems, the acupuncture point is not mechanically or electrically stressed. The measuring pin is spring-mounted so that the measuring pressure of 20 grams is always constant and the measurement is totally reproducible. The measuring current of 0.4 microamperes is also very low. Minimal mechanical pressure and a very small current ensure optimum reliability and hence reproducibility of the measurement. Use of a 1.2 volt battery means that “electrosmog” is not perceptible around the apparatus. Transmission of the data from the measuring computer to the computer is undertaken using infrared so that no indirect electrical influence takes place via the computer either. All these factors make the measurements objective and reproducible.

TBR System application

The meridian measurement used in the TBR System has proven its value over many years and involves the following benefits and opportunities:

  • Establishment of the energy status
  • Detection of energy imbalances
  • Finding the causes of chronic afflictions
  • Observation and evaluation of the efficacy of treatments
  • Detection of blockages arising from scar tissue, stress, psychological problems, etc., for example
  • Detection of interference fields

An overall application plan consists of 4 steps:

  1. Removing the causes of physical problems and restoring bodily functions
  2. Bringing energy flow imbalances back into equilibrium
  3. Processing/integrating unintegrated and unprocessed emotions
  4. Accompanying the client into the life situation s/he desires

Since the meridians are all-encompassing and provide us with information about physical and mental disorders, TBR System can serve as a starting point for every treatment. By using the measured results we are far better able to determine the direction of measures to be taken and to test the results afterwards. TBR System measurements in combination with the use of theTBR System can quickly lead to effective holistic treatment.

Proof of efficacy using dark-field microscopy

It is both known and scientifically proven that weakened cell metabolism in the blood vessels results in water being deposited. If the vessels swell up, blood can flow only slowly. This, in turn, causes the blood corpuscles to form clumps which can absorb less oxygen. This negative effect is reinforced by “electrosmog” (electromagnetic radiation), such as is given off by radiation from mobile phones, radio and mobile phone transmitter masts and electrical appliances, by a poor diet, medicines, emotional problems, such as stress and overload, too little exercise and severe pollution of the air, soil and water by a wide variety of toxins. Ultimately, the result is poor supply to organs and tissue.

The current “status” of the blood can be observed under a dark-field microscope. Dark-field microscopy is an optical method of examining objects that are so small as to be well below the level of perception of the human eye and that can therefore not be viewed or can only be viewed to a limited extent without technical assistance.

The vibrations, music, notes, oscillations and pulsed magnetic fields generated according to scientific principles by the TBR  System improve cell metabolism, dilate the capillaries, break up the clumps (what is known as the sludging phenomenon) and thus allow the blood cells to take up and transport more oxygen. The result is that circulation to the whole body improves with higher supplies of oxygen and nutrients. Waste products are carried away.

Proof of efficacy using a thermal imaging camera

The process of using a thermal imaging camera to create pictures is known as thermography. Thermography is an imaging process that visualises the heat radiated by an object or body that is invisible to the human eye (medium infrared). In thermography, temperature distributions over surfaces are recorded and depicted. Thermography is a non-contact measurement procedure.

In the field of medicine, one of the uses of thermal imaging cameras is to detect the sites of local inflammations or infections. A thermal imaging camera can also be used to visualise the increased temperature radiation resulting from increased circulation, such as occurs, for example, after a single use of TBR System

Proof of efficacy using heart-rate variability measurements

Heart-frequency or heart-rate variability (HRV) describes the ability of an organism to change the frequency of its cardiac rhythm. Spontaneous changes in the time between two heartbeats occur even at rest.

A healthy body uses autonomic, physiological regulation pathways to adjust the heart-rate constantly to instantaneous requirements. Physical exertion or mental stress is thus known to lead to an increased heart-rate, which normally decreases again on resting or relaxation. Greater variability in heart-rate indicates a greater ability to adjust to stress. In contrast, under a chronic stress load, both of these are more or less restricted and thus reduced because of the typically high, ongoing tension levels.

A heartbeat in a healthy individual is triggered by an impulse from the sinus node, the central pacemaker of the autonomic excitation system of the heart. This, in turn, is influenced by the higher-ranking vegetative nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system exerting an activating influence, one of the effects of which is to increase heart rate. Physical and mental stresses are accompanied by an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity in parallel to the physical functions controlled by the vagus nerve, such as digestion.

Just a single TBR System session results in a significant increase in heart-rate variability, the capacity to adjust to stress is increased, and the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic, and the enteric nervous systems, which, together, form the nervous system and control all the organs, are balanced out.

Life Sound Chaise

The Energy and Meditation Machine!

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Stress and stress related illnesses are at epidemic proportions globally. However, our reaction to stressors can actually be one of relaxation. It’s all a matter of learning how to generate a healthy response in the face of stress and to learn how to routinely exist in this state. And everyone can learn.
When we experience fear-based emotions associated with stress we tend to shut down or act out in order to reduce our feelings of fear. Doing so disconnects us from our feelings, literally taking us away from our body. The key to feeling relaxed in the face of stress is to learn what it feels like to be fully present and relaxed. 4L.B.D (4 life Bio Design) technology induces a relaxed and present state of being that you can easily feel. The more you feel relaxed, the easier it gets to recreate these feelings. With greater use these relaxed feelings intensify making you more resistant to feeling the effects of stress and making it easier to recreate feelings of relaxation and presence even when you allow stress to get the better of you.
Using music, the technology produces pleasant sound and vibrations, which induces a very deep state of relaxed drowsiness. The synchronized magnetic field induces a much greater state of presence, as a result of its interaction with the human energy system. During your session, you are instructed to fall asleep, which promotes the development of drowsiness, but the intermittent changes in the intensity of the sound and vibration from the music typically keeps you from falling into a deep sleep. As a result of the changing intensity and greater presence you become profoundly relaxed, but over time you remain aware. You learn to appreciate how relaxed and present you can feel, which then allows you to recreate these feelings anytime and with further practice you learn to intensify them.
Stress Reduction:
According to recent American Psychological Association surveys, approximately 75% of Americans feel that their levels of stress are unhealthy. According the AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians, approximately 66% of doctor’s office visits are stress related. Clearly stress is at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and it doesn’t appear to be lessening.
Stressors in our environment, whether they result from illness, financial issues, and relationship problems or simply due to a traffic jam, first impact the human nervous system and then the body. The stress response prepares our body for fight or flight and in our society, with its numerous stressors, often causes us to experience stress on a chronic basis. The antidote is the Relaxation Response (RR). 4L.B.D technology can produce a very potent RR.
The technology consists of amplified layered music played through transducers that generate synchronized sound and vibration as well as a strategically placed dynamic magnetic field affecting the central nervous system and the human energy system, respectively.
Since the days of our early ancestors we have been endowed with a nervous system that has a built-in, hard-wired survival mechanism. With this mechanism we are always scanning our environment, consciously and subconsciously, for potential danger. The survival mechanism is supported primarily by 3 of our senses, sight, hearing, and touch. While you’re in a Energy and Sound session there is no need to worry about your survival because you are safe so it’s okay to turn this mechanism off or nearly so. We accomplish this by systematically turning off or habituating your senses of sight, hearing and touch. Reducing these sensory inputs to your survival mechanism deactivates or markedly reduces it, producing a brain state of inattention, so that you can relax. More info….
 

SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR USING ELECTRICAL CURRENTS IN HEALING

SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR USING ELECTRICAL CURRENTS IN HEALING
Key Points:
  • Electrical potentials and electrical currents occur at all levels within the body; from the body as a whole, down to an intracellular level.
  • Electrical potentials and electrical currents direct and control cell behavior.
  • These electrical potentials and currents are generated and maintained by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).
    ATP Synthesis is generated by electron flow.
 
Electrical Potentials and Currents in the Body
Key Point:
  • Electrical potentials and the resulting Electrical currents occur at all levels within the body; from the body as a whole, down to an intracellular level.
 

We all know that electrical currents exist in our bodies; with the measurement of the electrical currents in the heart by an ECG, in the brain by an EEG, in the peripheral nerves by nerve conduction studies, and in muscles by an EMG.

There are also a variety of devices out on the market now that measure the electrical currents running through our body’s meridian systems, although these are not routinely recognized or used within the orthodox medical system.
F.R.T Technolgy are thought to utilize the recipients’ meridian system to deliver its current (or electrons).
The electrical currents occurring within individual organ systems and at a cellular level are driven by electrical potentials created by the cells and organs. Two examples of these are ‘Cell Wall Membrane Potentials’, and ‘Transepithelial Potentials (TEP’s) i.e. this is an electrical potential across an epithelial layer such as the skin. Overall, our bodies are thought to be more negatively charged on the outside than at our centre. An Electrical Potential is the difference in charge (positive [+ve] and negative [-ve]) between 2 areas, e.g. the +ve and –ve terminals of a fully charged battery. It is the electrical potentials that drive the currents just like a battery drives the current around a circuit. The cells create these electrical potentials by ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) driven pumps within [on] the cell walls. These ATP driven pumps actively pump positively charged ions across the cell wall resulting in a greater number of positively charged ions on the outside of the cell wall, or on one side of a membrane than the other. This creates a positive area and the resulting negatively charged area or an electrical potential.

 

These electrical potentials are critical in wound healing process and in the creation of ATP as described later. It is at these deeper and more subtle electrical levels in the body that the EPRT devices are having an effect.

The Role of Electrical Potentials and Electrical Currents at the cellular level

Key Point:
  • Electrical Potentials and Electrical Currents Direct and Control Cell Behavior.
 

To help understand these electrical potentials and electrical currents we are going to examine their role in three areas: A series of studies [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] measuring electrical potentials and electrical currents were carried out on Axolotl, Xenopus, and Chick embryos. All studies described electrical potentials and electrical currents. The electrical potentials were found to run in specific and uniform directions; from rostrocaudal (head to tail) and mediolateral (midline to edge). The Electrical currents flowed out of specific areas of the embryos, and these areas were found to be the areas of major tissue movement. The electrical current densities were found to be in the order of 100uA/cm2.

Figure 1 (above).Spatial differences in the transepithelial potential difference (TEP) generate electric fields within intact embryos. A: TEP measurements made using glass voltage-sensing electrodes. The TEP of axolotl embryos was measured relative to a bath ground electrode at the time of early neural tube formation (stage 16) in three positions on the same embryo. Measurement sites are shown in B: a, at the rostral end of the neural groove; b, at the lateral edge of the neural fold; c, at the lateral epithelium; d, halfway along the neural groove; e, at the caudal end of the neural groove near the blastopore. The TEP at each site was positive on the inside of the embryo. [Data from Shi and Borgens (180).] B: TEP measurements made at sites a, b, and c in 8 embryos demonstrating that the TEP is highest in the center of the neural groove (a) and lowest at the lateral edge of the neural ridge (b). Measurements from 20 embryos at site a, d, and e indicates a rostral to caudal TEP gradient. [Data from Shi and Borgens (180); embryo in B and D modified from Borgens and Shi (26).] C: an artist’s impression of the spatial differences of TEP in a stage 16 axolotl embryo. Colors represent the magnitude of the TEP. Yellow is highest, and purple is lowest. The slope of the line indicates the magnitude of the resulting local electric field in the subepidermal tissues. [Modified from Shi and Borgens (180).] D: current loops detected using a non-invasive vibrating electrode. The electrode vibrates rapidly near the embryo in an electrically conductive medium (e.g., pond water). The stainless steel electrode has a small voltage sensing platinum ball at its tip, which is vibrated rapidly over a distance of _20 _m. The electrode (red) is shown at the extremes of its vibration. The voltage is determined at each point, and the current density at the measurement site is calculated using known values for distance from the embryo and the resistivity of the bathing medium. As would be predicted from the spatial variation of TEP illustrated in A and B, there is outward current at the lateral edges of the neural ridges, inward current at the center of the neural groove, inward current at the lateral skin, and a large outward current at the blastopore.
The studies then disrupted the naturally occurring (endogenous) electrical potentials and currents by either enhancing them (hyperpolarising) or reducing them (depolarising) and examined the effects on the embryo’s. The results were astounding.

Results:
The embryo’s exposed to electrical fields reported 87-95% abnormality rates, while the control embryos reported 11-17% abnormality rates. The abnormalities seen consisted of; absence of cranium, loss of one or both eyes, misshapen head, abnormal brachial development, incomplete closure of neural folds, incomplete notocord development, and cells were seen to migrate out of the embryo and developed autonomously in the dish while other cells that had differentiated were reduced to a formless mass of apparently dedifferentiated cells. They also showed that the axis of cell division can be determined by applied and endogenous Electrical Fields.
In summary, endogenous electrical fields with normal polarity and magnitude are essential for normal development and the pattern of electrical potentials within embryos provide a gross template or blueprint for the development of the embryos guiding differentiation and movement of the cells within the embryo.

 

It has been known for over 150yrs that endogenous electrical currents played a part in wound healing, with a German physiologist Emil Du-Bois Reymond measuring a 1uA current flowing out of a cut in his own finger!

These electrical currents arise as a result of a standing electrical potential that is constant and maintained across the epithelial layer of the skin. This electrical potential is called a ‘Transepithelial Potential’ or TEP’s. On the surface layer of the epithelium there is passive influx of positively charged sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions. On the basal cell membrane there are Na+/K+ ATPases that actively pump Na+ out of the cell into the matrix. This results in a higher concentration of Na+ inside the skin relative to the outer surface creating a TEP. Intact skin therefore represents a biological battery. This is powered by ATP.

Injury currents occur when there is a break in the epithelial layer resulting in an out-flowing of Na+ ions from the inner layer of the skin (high concentration) to the outer layers of the skin (lower concentration). This out flow of positively charged ions is an electrical current, and this electrical current creates a bioelectrical field. Electrical fields are important as having both magnitude and direction. They can impose directional movement on chemicals in the extracellular environment, on receptor molecules, on cells and on tissues [8]. This explains how the great German physiologist Emil Du-Bois Reymond measured a 1uA current flowing out of his own cut finger in 1843, and Robert Beckers observations of the currents flowing out of the wounds of amputated salamander tails and limbs in the 1960’s and 1970’s.

The instant a wound is created a Direct Current Electrical Field (DC EF) is set up. McCaig claims that “In evolutionary terms, membrane resealing to close an electrical leak is among the most primitive activities that cells undertake.”

So what do these electrical currents mean in terms of the healing process?
Two studies [9,10] looking at wound induced electrical fields (EF) in bovine cornea and guinea pig and human skin not only proved the existence of electrical fields which dropped exponentially with the distance from the wound, but also came to the following conclusions:

  • All cell behaviors within approximately 500um of a wound edge in skin and cornea take place within a standing gradient voltage. These include epithelial cell migration, epithelial cell division, nerve sprouting, leukocyte infiltration, and endothelial cell remodeling with associated angiogenesis i.e. the whole gamut of cellular responses to injury.
  • Because the voltage gradient dropped exponentially with the distance from the wound any cell behaviors governed by the endogenous EF would be regulated differently with the distance from the wound.
  • Increasing or decreasing the TEP would inevitably increase or decrease the voltage gradient profile at the wound.
    Studies [11, 12, and 13] were then done on rats cornea’s manipulating the endogenous EF’s by either enhancing or reducing the endogenous EF’s or by applying exogenous electrical currents.

These studies looked at; 
i. Healing rates,
ii. Proliferation of cells,
iii. Axis of cell division,
iv. And nerve growth.

Results:
i. The direction and rate of migrating epithelial cells into the wound was affected by the EF. Enhancing the EF healed the corneal wound 2.5 times faster while reducing the EF slowed the rate of healing to 18% of normal.

ii. The proliferation of epithelial cells. Similarly there was a 40% increase in cell divisions within 600um of the wound edge in the corneas whose EF was enhanced, and a 27% suppression of mitoses in the corneas whose EF was reduced

iii. The axis of cell division. It was found that in the dividing cells, the mitotic spindle aligns parallel to the EF, and the cleavage occurred perpendicular to this. The orientation of the dividing cells reduced the further away from the wound edge, as the strength of the EF reduces. Again cells in an enhanced EF roughly doubled the proportion of dividing cells whose cleavage plans were perpendicular to the EF, and corneas treated in a reduced EF

iv. The proportion of nerves sprouting at the wound, and the direction of growth of nerve sprouts towards the wound edge. The corneas in an enhanced EF showed neurite growth enhanced with more sprouts appearing, they appeared earlier, and orientated towards the wound edge earlier. Reducing the EF did not prevent early collateral nerve sprouting, but the nerve growth was not directed towards the wound edge.

v. EFs were found to stimulate secretion in the extracellular space of growth factors (VEGF) from endothelial cells [14].

vi. EFs were found to upregulate expression of growth factor receptors (EGFR) on corneal epithelial cells [15].

vii. In an applied DC EF with the cathode at the wound edge the wound healed faster, but with the anode at the wound edge the wound not only failed to close but actually opened up [16].

It was concluded that because electrical signals arise immediately in a wound and control multiple cell behaviors in vivo, the physiological EF may orchestrate an integrated response of interdependent cell behaviors that includes the epithelial and nerve interactions essential for wound healing. Consequently, the EF is at the head of a hierarchy of cues that interact to promote wound healing [8].

All cells have an electrical potential across their cell membrane that makes the outside of the cell relatively positively charged compared to the inside of the cell. This again represents a biological battery. The charge across a healthy cell membrane is approximately -70mV. To put this into perspective, if the membrane is 7-10nm thick then the corresponding voltage is 10 million volts per meter [17]. Maintenance of this cell membrane electrical potential is essential for the normal workings of the cell.

This amazing membrane potential is generated and maintained by the disproportionate pumping of sodium ions (Na+) out of the cell and potassium.

ions (K+) into the cell. Three (3) Na+ are pumped out of the cell for every two (2) K+ pumped into the cell. This results in a greater number Na+ outside the cell compared to the number of K+ inside the cell and therefore a greater positive charge outside the cell. This pump that lives in the cell wall is called Na+/K+ ATPase, and as the named suggests is powered by ATP. Interestingly Magnesium also plays an integral role in the process binding onto the Na+/K+ ATPase pump with ATP

There are a multitude of other ion channels in the cell wall membranes that transfer ions from one side of the cell wall to the other. While not powered by ATP they are affected by the electrical potential of the cell membrane (Voltage gradient) and also produce electrical currents of their own. These ion channels open or close by changing their shape as a result of the activation of a receptor part of the molecule or changes in the cell wall membrane potential. They also contain a voltage sensitive gate which as the name suggests opens or closes with changes in voltage gradients (or electrical potentials).

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann [18] won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1991, “for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”. They essentially devised a method of measuring the electrical currents in a single ion channel in the cell wall. What they found was there existed electrical currents in the range of picoAmpere occurring inside the ion channels that corresponded with the opening and closing of that ion channel.
In summary, we can see that not only do electrical potentials and electrical currents exist in cell wall membranes, but they control and direct the membranes ability to transfer ions across the cell wall membrane, the influx and efflux of nutrients and toxins, and so as a result influencing the internal and external environment and overall health of the cell.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion we can see that the body generates and maintains electrical potentials at the cell wall, across epithelial layers, as well that through the body as a whole. That the more subtle electrical potentials and currents control cell behavior in embryonic development, in wound healing, and within the cell in the cell wall membranes.

If you are working to change cellular, organ behavior or patterns with nutrients, herbs, or drugs, you do not have a hope if the electrical message being generated at a cellular level is opposite to that which you are trying to achieve. Our aim is to support the natural electrical processes of the body by working at its level of operation, NOT to override or destroy them.

 

The Role of ATP in Electron Potentials

Key Point:
  • These electrical potentials and currents are generated and maintained by ATP.
 

The majority of ATP is produced via the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). The ETC is a series of protein complexes and ubiquinone (or CoQ10) found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The main product of the Citric acid or Krebs cycle is a molecule called NADH (the reduced form of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide or NAD+). NADH is a high energy molecule that contains 2 electrons. NADH donates these two electrons into the first complex of the ETC. The two electrons then flow down an energy gradient to be received by a relatively low energy Oxygen molecule in the last complex to form water. At different stages throughout the ETC as the electrons step down an energy level Protons are pumped across the inner membrane against the electrochemical gradient. It is the high concentration of protons in the inter-membrane space that drives the ATP synthase to synthesize ATP from ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (inorganic phosphate). So the number of ATP produced by the reduction of Oxygen from NADH is proportional to the number of electrons flowing down the ETC.

In diseased states there is most likely electron leakage out of the ETC resulting in a less efficient process. If by exposing the mitochondria to an electrical current that can flow electrons through the ETC without asking the mitochondria and the Krebs cycle to work any harder then we can improve the efficiency of ATP production. This has been backed up with work done by Ngok Cheng [20] who showed that ATP production was dramatically increased in a rat skin model as a result of passing micro-currents through those cells.

 

Overall Summary

From the moment of our creation, the electrical fields our cells and body generate govern the cellular decision making processes that direct the expression of our genes, our development and growth, the day to day operating of our cells, and our healing. It all starts at the level of the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell and therefore, the body), as it is the ATP that the mitochondria produces, powers the cells ability to generate the electrical fields.

The aim of F.R.T therefore, is to assist the mitochondria in maximizing their ability to produce ATP, this increases the cells ability to generate and maintain the electrical fields it uses to direct the healing process, which will result in an improved outcome for that person. Prof. Tim Watson describes this process as ‘Cellular Tickling’ [17].

“Cellular tickling is gently tickling the cells and cell walls with low energy fields producing membrane excitement, and therefore cellular excitement stimulating the cells into a higher level of activity. Rather than the electrical device doing the work, you are tapping into the natural resources and innate knowledge of the cells to do the work.”

This is what F.R.T Technologies is doing; tapping into the meridians of the body, flowing electrons through the body into the mitochondria, enabling them to produce more ATP, exciting the cells into generating their own electrical response which stimulates the healing process of the body.

 

References:

1) Robinson KR and Messerli MA. Electric embryos. In: Nerve Growth and Nerve Guidance, edited by McCaig CD. London: Portland, 1996.

2) Metcalf MEM and Borgens RB. Weak applied voltages interfere with amphibian morphogenesis and pattern. J Exp Zool 268: 322–338, 1994.

3) Hotary KB and Robinson KR. Endogenous electrical currents and voltage gradients in Xenopus embryos and the consequences of their disruption. Dev Biol 166: 789–800, 1994.

4) Hotary KB and Robinson KR. Endogenous electrical currents and the resultant voltage gradients in the chick embryo. Dev. Biology 140: 149–160, 1990.

5) Hotary KB and Robinson KR. Evidence for a role for endogenous electrical fields in chick embryo development. Development 114: 985–996, 1992.

6) Borgens RB and Shi R. Uncoupling histogenesis from morphogenesis in the vertebrate embryo by collapse of the transneural tube potential. Dev Dyn 203: 456–467, 1995.

7) Levin M, Thorlin T, Robinson KR, Nogi T, and Mercola M Asymmetries in H+/K+-ATPase and cell membrane potentials comprise a very early step in left-right patterning.. Cell 111: 77–89, 2002.

8) McCaig, C. D., Rajnicek, A. M., Song, B. & Zhao, M. Controlling cell behaviour
electrically: current views and future potential. Physiol. Rev. 85, 943–-978, 2005.

9) Barker AT, Jaffe LF, and Vanable JW Jr. The glabrous epidermis of cavies contains a powerful battery. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 242: R358–R366, 1982?

10) Chiang M, Robinson KR, and Vanable JW Jr. Electrical fields in the vicinity of epithelial wounds in the isolated bovine eye. Exp Eye Res 54: 999–1003, 1992.

11) Song B, Zhao M, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Electrical cues regulate the orientation and frequency of cell division and the rate of wound healing in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 13577–13582, 2002.

12) Song B, Zhao M, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Nerves are guided and nerve sprouting is stimulated by a naturally occurring electrical field in vivo. J Cell Sci 117: 4681–4690, 2004.

13) McCaig CD, Rajnicek AM, Song B, and Zhao M. Has electrical growth cone guidance found its potential? Trends Neurosci 25: 354–359, 2002.

14) Zhao M, Bai H, Wang E, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Electrical stimulation directly induces pre-angiogenic responses in vascular endothelial cells by signalling through VEGF receptors. J Cell Sci 117: 397–405, 2003.

15) Zhao M, Dick A, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Electric field directed cell motility involves up-regulated expression and asymmetric redistribution of the epidermal growth factor receptors and is enhanced by fibronectin and by laminin. Mol Biol Cell 10: 1259– 1276, 1999.

16) Sta Iglesia DD and Vanable JW Jr. Endogenous lateral electric fields around bovine corneal lesions are necessary for and can enhance normal rates of wound healing. Wound Rep Reg 6: 531– 542, 1998.

17) Prof Tim Watson. Current Concepts in Electrotherapy. School of Health & Emergency Professions, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts, Al109AB, United Kingdom. 2006. www.electrotherapy.org

18) Neher E. and Sakmann B. Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine 1991.see http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1991/press.html

19) Becker et al. The World of the Cell. 4th Edition. Published by ‘the Benjamin/Cummins Publishing Company’ p112

20) Ngok Cheng M.D., et al. The Effects of Electric Currents on ATP Generation, Protein Synthesis, and Membrane Transport in Rat Skin Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. Number 17. Nov-Dec 1982, pages 264 to 272.